Monday, November 30, 2009

Some Facts about India


  • India never invaded any country in her last 100000 years of history.

  • When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)

  • The name 'India' is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshipers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu.

  • The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name 'Hindustan' combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.
  • Chess was invented in India.

  • Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.

  • The 'Place Value System' and the 'Decimal System' were developed in India in 100 B.C.

  • The World's First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.

  • India is the largest democracy in the world, the 6th largest Country in the world, and one of the most ancient civilizations.

  • The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat'. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The game was played with cowrie shells and dices. In time, the game underwent several modifications, but its meaning remained the same, i.e. good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births.

  • The world's highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. Built in 1893 after leveling a hilltop, this cricket pitch is 2444 meters above sea level.

  • India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world.
  • The largest employer in the world is the Indian Railways, employing over a million people.

  • The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.

  • Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.

  • India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India's wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake.

  • The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word 'NAVGATIH'. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'.

  • Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.

  • The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians.

  • Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India. Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10^53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).

  • Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world.(Source: Gemological Institute of America).

  • The Baily Bridge is the highest bridge in the world. It is located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains. It was built by the Indian Army in August 1982.

  • Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over 2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries.

  • Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism,physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.

  • India exports software to 90 countries.

  • The four religions born in India - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population.

  • Jainism and Buddhism were founded in India in 600 B.C. and 500 B.C. respectively.

  • Islam is India's and the world's second largest religion.

  • There are 300,000 active mosques in India, more than in any other country, including the Muslim world.

  • The oldest European church and synagogue in India are in the city of Cochin. They were built in 1503 and 1568 respectively.

  • Jews and Christians have lived continuously in India since 200 B.C. and 52 A.D. respectively

  • The largest religious building in the world is Angkor Wat, a Hindu Temple in Cambodia built at the end of the 11th century.

  • The Vishnu Temple in the city of Tirupathi built in the 10th century, is the world's largest religious pilgrimage destination. Larger than either Rome or Mecca, an average of 30,000 visitors donate $6 million (US) to the temple everyday.

  • Sikhism originated in the Holy city of Amritsar in Punjab. Famous for housing the Golden Temple, the city was founded in 1577.

  • Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called "the Ancient City" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.

  • India provides safety for more than 300,000 refugees originally from Sri Lanka, Tibet, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who escaped to flee religious and political persecution.

  • His Holiness, the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists, runs his government in exile from Dharmashala in northern India.
  • Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.

  • Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.

Drinking Too much of Water is DANGEROUS

We even need water to breathe: our lungs must be moist to take in oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide. Water is the element most necessary for survival. We can go without food for almost two months, but without water only a few days.

Drinking too much water can lead to a condition known as water intoxication also known as hyper-hydration or water poisoning.

Water intoxication is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits by over-consumption of water.
  • Ingesting more water than you need can increase your total blood volume. And since your blood volume exists within a closed system - your blood circulatory system - needlessly increasing your blood volume on a regular basis puts unnecessary burden on your heart and blood vessels.
  • Your kidneys must work overtime to filter excess water out of your blood circulatory system. Your kidneys are not the equivalent of a pair of plumbing pipes whereby the more water you flush through your kidneys, the cleaner they become; rather, the filtration system that exists in your kidneys is composed in part by a series of specialized capillary beds called glomeruli. Your glomeruli can get damaged by unnecessary wear and tear over time, and drowning your system with large amounts of water is one of many potential causes of said damage.

The kidneys of a healthy adult can process fifteen liters of water a day! You are unlikely to suffer from water intoxication, even if you drink a lot of water, as long as you drink over time as opposed to intaking an enormous volume at one time. That is, If you force large amounts of water into your system over a short period of time, your kidneys will struggle to eliminate enough water from your system to keep the overall amount at a safe level.

As your blood circulatory system becomes diluted with excess water, the concentration of electrolytes in your blood will drop relative to the concentration of electrolytes in your cells. In an effort to maintain an equal balance of electrolytes between your blood and your cells, water will seep into your cells from your blood, causing your cells to swell.

By not drinking enough water, many people incur excess body fat, poor muscle tone and size, decreased digestive efficiency and organ function, increased toxicity in the body, joint and muscle soreness and water retention.

As a general guideline, most adults need about three quarts of fluid each day. Much of that water comes from food, so 8-12 eight ounce glasses a day is a common recommended intake. ie., The minimum for a healthy person is eight to ten eight-ounce glasses a day. Beverages such as tea, coffee and fruit juices also count towards fluid intake, and may bring with them other nutrients or benefits.
You may need more water if the weather is very warm or very dry, if you are exercising, or if you are taking certain medications.

How to maintain fluid levels:

* Start as you mean to go on, with a glass of water when you wake.
* Find time to make yourself regular drinks during the day - don't forget that tea, coffee and juices can count. Just watch out for the amount of sugar consumed in some soft drinks.
* Keep a bottle of water in your bag, as it's a convenient way of providing fluid if you're travelling or exercising.
* Get into the habit of having a glass of water with every meal.
* The sensation of thirst is not triggered until you're already dehydrated, so it's important to drink before you get thirsty.
* Increase your intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, as they have a high water content.


Correct timing to Drink Water

Correct timing to Drink Water

The Correct timing to drink water will maximize its effectiveness to the human body:

  1. Two glass of water 30 minutes before meal will help digestion.
  2. One glass of water after you wake up, helps active internal organs.
  3. One glass of water before you sleep will help to avoid stroke or heart attack at midnight.
  4. One glass of water after taking bath helps lower blood pressure.


Drinking Too much of Water is DANGEROUS

Friday, November 27, 2009

India's National Symbols


National Flag:

India's National flag is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron(Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proposition. In the centre of the white band is the navy-blue Wheel (CHAKRA). It design is the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes.

The Constituent Assembly of India adopted the design of the National Flag on 22 July 1947.

The ratio of the Width and length of Flag is 2:3.

The color Saffron represents Sacrifice, the color of Flame.
The color white represents Nobility.
The color Green represents Prosperity.
The wheel represents Dharma (Law).

National Emblem:

The state emblem (ie National Emblem) is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.

In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law, Dharma Chakra.

In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left.

It inspires us to march along the path of dharma slogging like bull yet remaining swift as a horse.

The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning 'Truth Alone Triumphs', are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.

National Anthem:

The song Jana-gana-mana, composed by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on January 24, 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.
The Complete Song of Jana-gana-mana consists of five stanza, but, the first Stanza constitutes the full version of National Anthem.

It reads as follows:

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mange,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!

This is the Full Version of our National Anthem and its playing time is approximately 52 seconds.

Short Version of National Anthem:

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!

The short version consisting of the first and last lines of the National Anthem is also played on certain occasions. Playing time of the short version is about 20 seconds.

The following is Tagore's English rendering of the anthem:

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee.

National Song:

The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza:

Vande Mataram!
Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,
Shasyashyamalam, Mataram!
Vande Mataram!
Shubhrajyotsna pulakitayaminim,
Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim,
Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim,
Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!
Vande Mataram, Vande Mataram!

The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose 1 is:

I bow to thee, Mother,
richly-watered, richly-fruited,
cool with the winds of the south,
dark with the crops of the harvests,
The Mother!
Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight,
her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom,
sweet of laughter, sweet of speech,
The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss.

National Flower:

Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn) or Water Lily is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.

Lotus represents Detachment(vairagya). The water touches it but cannot make it wet. Similarly, the spiritual mind endures all adversities with a smile - ie., Sorrow Around but not Sorrowful.

National Fruit:

A fleshy fruit, eaten ripe or used green for pickles etc., of the tree Mangifera indica, the mango is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. Its juicy fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial.

The poet Kalidasa sang its praises. Alexander savoured its taste, as did the Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang. Mughal emperor Akbar planted 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, Bihar at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh.

National Tree:

Indian fig tree (Banyan Tree), Ficus bengalensis, whose branches root themselves like new trees over a large area. The roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India. Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and the village council meets under the shade of this tree.

It also Provides Shelter and the tree is a veritable micro habitat for countless creatures. It releases maximum ozone in the atmosphere.

Like the Banyan, India Shelters all races, castes, creed and religion. To them all, it gives Wisdom.

National Bird:

The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus, the national bird of India, is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green tail of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male and lacks the tail. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight.

The Peacock is widely found in the Indian sub-continent from the south and east od the Indus river, Jammu and Ksahmir, East Assam, South Mizoram and the whole of the Indian peninsula.

Peacock represents a colorful life.

National Animal:

Tiger, the magnificent animal, scientifically called the Panthera tigris (Linnaeus), the national animal of India, is a rich-colored striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region and also in the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. To check the dwindling population of tigers in India, 'Project Tiger' was launched in April 1973. So far, 27 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project, covering an area of 37,761 sq km.

The tiger needs to be emulated to remain alert and swift while working towards our goal of in life.

National Game:

Hockey is the National Game of India. Unmatched excellence and incomparable virtuosity brought India a string of Olympic gold medals. Post Indian Independence, the Indian team achieved another hat-trick of gold medals at the 1948 London

Olympics, 1952 Helsinki Games and the Melbourne Olympics.
During the Golden Era, India played 24 Olympic matches, won all 24, scored 178 goals (at an average of 7.43 goals per match) and conceded only 7 goals. The two other gold medals for India came in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1980 Moscow Olympics.

Our nation has an excellent record with eight Olympic gold medals. Indian hockey's golden period was from 1928-56, when the Indian hockey team won six successive Olympic gold medals. Team also won the 1975 World Cup besides two more medals (silver and a bronze). The Indian Hockey Federation gained global affiliation in 1927 and joined the International Hockey Federation (FIH).

Friday, November 13, 2009

Cricket BALL

Some Information about Cricket Ball

For men's cricket, the ball must weigh between 5.5 and 5.75 ounces (155.9 and 163.0 g) and measure between 8 13/16 and 9 in (224 and 229 mm) in circumference. Balls used in women's and youth matches are slightly smaller.

A cricket ball may not be replaced except under specific conditions described in the Laws of Cricket:

* If the ball becomes damaged or lost.
* If the condition of the ball is illegally modified by a player.
* In Test cricket, after 80 overs, the captain of the bowling side has the option to take a new ball.
* In One Day Internationals, previously there is a mandatory change of the ball at the start of the 35th over of each innings. The replacement will be a clean used ball, not a new ball. This rule was introduced in June 2007

In October 2011 new changes introduced in ODI format to use two white balls in an inning - one from either end. This also removes the mandatory change of ball after 34th over.

The ball is not replaced if it is hit into the crowd - the crowd must return it. If the ball is damaged, lost, or illegally modified, it will be replaced by a used ball in similar condition to the replaced ball. A new ball can only be used after the specified minimum number of overs have been bowled with the old one.

The umpires will inspect the ball frequently during a match. It is illegal for a player to:

* rub any substance apart from saliva or sweat onto the ball
* rub the ball on the ground
* scuff the ball with any rough object, including the fingernails
* pick at or lift the seam of the ball.

White balls are used in all limited overs cricket where coloured clothing is worn.

A pink ball was used for the first time in an international match in July 2009 when the England Woman's team defeated Australia at Wormsley

The directions in which a right-handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots. The diagram for a left-handed batsman is a mirror image of this one.

The white ball has been found to swing a lot more during the first half of the innings than the red ball and also deteriorates more quickly, although manufacturers claim that white and red balls are manufactured using the same methods and materials.

Tuesday, November 10, 2009

About Nutrients

Know About Substances present in Food useful for Human body

A nutrient is a chemical that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment.

Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals, water, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients.A nutrient is essential to an organism if it cannot be synthesized by the organism in sufficient quantities and must be obtained from an external source.

Substances that provide energy - Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins.
Substances that support metabolism - Vitamins, Water, Dietary Minerals.


Vitamins are organic compounds essential for life, health and growth. They are not eaten as in the diet, but are widely dispersed in food.

Two Kinds of Vitamins:

  • Fat soluble vitamins - Vitamin A, Vitamin D(Calciferol), Vitamin E(Tocopherol) and Vitamin K

  • Water soluble vitamins - Vitamin B1(Thiamine), Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), Nicotinamide, Vitamin B6(Pyridoxine), Panthothenic acid, Biotin, Folic acid (Pteroyglutamic acid), Vitamin B12 and Vitamin C.

Why Vitamins are Valuable?

Vitamins are chemical substances present naturally in most foods and in synthetic form, like in vitamin pills. Both forms are equally nutritious since the vitamins in each case are chemically identical. The body needs only tiny quantities of them- ranging from about 30mg(30 thousandths of a gram) a day of Vitamin C. For instance, down to 1 micro-gram (one millionth of a gram)of Vitamin B12. They play no direct part in producing body tissues or energy, but they are essential for the body to function efficiently, just as oil is essential for running of a car.

Vitamins deficiency can lead to illness and in extreme cases, death. The killer diseases Scurvy and beri-beri are caused by deficiencies of the vitamins C and B1 respectively. Deficiency of Vitamin A can cause Night Blindness, and Deficiency of Vitamin D leads to rickets ( a childhood disease of bones).

Anyone, who eats a variety of foods, however, is unlikely to run into problems.

What are Carbohydrates?

They consist of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. They are found in sugar, jams cereals, bread, potatoes, fruit, vegetables and milk.

Functions of Carbohydrates:

  • In the body they are utilized to provide energy and heat.
  • They help to maintain the normal blood glucose level.

Three main groups of carbohydrates:

  • Mono-saccharides,
  • Di-saccharides and
  • Polysaccharides.

What are Proteins?

Proteins are complex compounds containing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorous. They are obtained mainly from meats, eggs, milk, cheese, fish, cereals and certain vegetables.

Essentials of Proteins:
  • To repair body tissues
  • Maintenance of the osmotic equilibrium between blood and tissue fluids
  • Providing energy and heat when there is an insufficient supply if Carbohydrates.


Fat is important in the diet not only for its high energy but also it contains the fat soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K and certain essential fatty acids.

Necessity of Mineral Salts:

Mineral Salts are necessary in diet for all body processes. Only small amount of it is needed.

Use of Calcium:

Calcium is the chief constituent of teeth and bones. it is absorbed in the small intestine with the help of Vitamin D. It plays an important part in the coagulation of blood and in contraction of muscles.

Use of Phosphate:

Phosphate combines with calcium in the formation of bone and teeth and it helps to maintain the normal composition of body fluids.

Importance of Sodium:

Sodium present mainly in tissue fluids and therefore play an important role in cell activity and in the fluid balance of the body.

Use of Potassium:

Potassium is an essential constituent of all cells. It is also necessary for the normal activity of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles.

Importance of Iron in the body:

Iron is necessary for the formation of cytochromes that is involved in tissue oxidation. It is very essential for the formation of Haemoglobin.

Importance of Iodine:

Iodine is essential for the formation of the Thyroid hormones, thyroxine and tri iodothyronine.

Monday, November 2, 2009


Calorie Values of Food Items
(Figures given below based on 100 gm portions)

(in gms)
(in gms)
Carbo hydrates
(in gms)
(in gms)
Milk653.34588A, B2, Niacin
Cream 210 2 21372A
Cheese 310 22 25 -44A, B2, Niacin
Ice cream 170 472564B1, B2, Niacin
740 - 81 - 16A
Eggs 150 1211-75A, B1, B2, Niacin
Beef(Boiled) 340 28 24 - 48 B2, Niacin
Pork(grilled)340 29 24- 36 B1, B2, Niacin
Chicken (Rost) 150 255- 55-
Fish (eg. Cod) 220 20 108 60 B1, Niacin
Beans (Boiled) 20 2 - 3 90A
Cabbage (Boiled)10 1 - 1 96A, C
Carrots(Boiled) 20 0.6 - 491 A
Cauliflower (Boiled)10 1.5 -1 93 C
Cucumber (raw) 10 0.6 - 2 96C
Peas (Boiled) 50 5 - 8 80A, B1, B2, Niacin, C
Potatoes (Boiled) 801 - 2277 B1
Tomatoes 15 1 - 3 93A, C
Apples 45 0.3 - 12 84-
Bananas 80 1 - 20 70C
Cherries 50 0.6 - 12 81-
Grapes 60 0.6- 1580 C
Oranges 35 1 -9 86 -
Pea Nuts (Roasted) 570 24 49 9 4B1, B2, Niacin
Beer 300.3 - 2 - -
Wine 70 - - - - -
Spirits 220 - - - - -
Tea (Black) - - - - -
Coffee (Black) - - - - - Niacin
Sugar (tea spoon) 24 -- - - -
Bread 230 8 2 5039 B1, Niacin
Rice (white Boiled) 120 2 - 30 70 -
Cornflakes with milk 205 6.5 4 34.7 -A, B, B1, B2, Niacin
Chocolate Biscuits 520 628 672 B2, Niacin
Wheat Bran 200 14 6 23 8 B1, B2, Niacin

Calorie is the food energy is expressed in terms of Calorie.
1 calorie = 4.18400 joules